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Understanding Male Infertility – Common Causes and Solutions 

Understanding Male Infertility – Common Causes and Solutions

Male infertility is a serious issue that affects millions of men worldwide. Often, these issues are caused by genetic abnormalities such as Klinefelter syndrome or Y chromosome microdeletions. Adequate production of sperm is responsible for ninety percent of cases of male infertility.” However, this is not to say that other factors cannot contribute as well.


Male infertility can result from problems with sperm production or with the structure of the tubes that transport sperm (tubules). These issues often cause a blockage that prevents sperm from reaching the female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse. Lifestyle factors, including a diet low in vitamins and minerals, can lower sperm levels. In addition, alcohol can interfere with sperm production, lead to erectile dysfunction and lead to liver disease. Smoking can also lower sperm counts and cause hormone imbalances.

A doctor might recommend several treatment options, depending on the cause of male infertility. For example, if lifestyle habits are causing low sperm numbers, the doctor can help the man improve his eating and exercise patterns. In addition, if the problem is due to hormones or a blockage in the tubules that carry sperm, the doctor can perform surgery to repair these problems. 

Also, vitamins can help male fertility by providing essential nutrients that support optimal sperm production, quality, and overall reproductive health.

Men’s vitamins for fertility offer a range of benefits by providing essential nutrients crucial in supporting reproductive health. These vitamins typically include key elements such as L-carnitine, L-arginine, L-aurine, and green tea extract, known to maintain healthy sperm production and function. By addressing nutritional deficiencies and promoting optimal sperm quality, men’s vitamins for fertility aim to enhance the chances of successful conception and support overall reproductive well-being.


Mumps, or parotitis, is a contagious viral infection that affects one or both of the salivary glands in your mouth. Most children and teenagers get mumps, which usually causes only mild symptoms. The mumps vaccine protects against this virus and produces lifetime immunity. However, mumps can also affect other glands, including the central nervous system and testicles.

If the inflammation caused by mumps is severe enough, it can cause infertility in men. In fact, in the rare case of severe orchitis (inflammation of one or both testicles), a man is likely to lose his fertility ability.

Mumps may also cause anti-sperm antibodies that interfere with sperm production and movement. These antibodies can cause low sperm counts, blockages or structural abnormalities in the reproductive tract and other conditions that can prevent sperm from fertilizing your egg. Other common causes of male infertility include genital infections, cancer treatments, surgery, early or late puberty, and chromosomal disorders like Klinefelter syndrome.


Almost all human traits and diseases have a genetic component. In men, this is especially important for fertility. The testicles make sperm, which are then ejaculated by the penis and used to fertilize an egg during sexual intercourse. Problems that interfere with sperm production, like blockage of tubes that carry semen (such as the epididymis, vas deferens and ejaculatory ducts), can prevent conception.

Occasionally, genital tract disorders caused by genetics can also be a factor in male infertility. For instance, abnormal development of the male reproductive organs occurs in some forms of Klinefelter’s syndrome, in which a male is born with one Y chromosome and two X chromosomes.

A blockage can also hamper fertility in the tubes that carry sperm, such as varicocele.

These conditions can be caused by surgery, infections or injuries to the genital tract, or they may be hereditary. Medications can also affect sperm production, including long-term anabolic steroids, some ulcer drugs and certain cancer medications.


Vasectomy is a surgical procedure that permanently blocks the small tubes in the scrotum that carry sperm. It’s super effective and a good choice if you never want to have children. It’s performed in ‘doctors’ offices and hospitals and may be done by family medicine or general surgery doctors. However, it’s more commonly done by urologists who specialize in male reproductive organs.

Despite the high success rate of vasectomies, a small percentage of men continue to have trouble conceiving even after the tubes are rejoined. These men are considered to have pure male factor infertility.

UNC urologist and vasectomy reversal specialist Matt Coward says that men should only get a vasectomy if they’re sure it’s what they want to do. The good news is that some men can reverse the procedure and become fertile again.


Hormones are tiny chemicals that tell your body what to do. They control things like your metabolism and your reproductive system. But if you have a hormone imbalance, it can cause infertility. Hormones balance themselves when you eat and exercise. But some conditions can disrupt this balance, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and autoimmune diseases like celiac disease or lupus.

Issues with sperm production or delivery most frequently cause male infertility in men. Congenital disabilities or conditions that affect the testicles, like infections or surgery, are typically the cause of these. Additionally, varicocele—enlarged veins in the scrotum—or scar tissue may be to blame.

This type of male infertility is usually treated with drugs such as clomid and metformin. But some natural treatments may help, too. For example, a study found that a diet rich in Nigella sativa, or black seeds, can raise estrogen levels.


Infections of the genital tract caused by bacteria (like chlamydia and gonorrhea), fungi, or parasites can contribute to male infertility. The infection can cause inflammation in different parts of the reproductive system, reducing sperm count, quality, and motility. These infections can be a result of sexually transmitted diseases but also due to bacterial infection in the urinary tract (like E.coli), varicoceles, and epididymitis, an infection of the tubes in the back of the testicles that store and transport sperm. Mycoplasma genitalium is one of the most common causes of these infections. It is a bacterium that doesn’t show symptoms and often goes undetected for long periods.

Other causes of infertility are problems with ejaculation, early ejaculation, a condition where the testicles don’t make sperm (hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) and anatomic abnormalities like a vas deferens that doesn’t connect properly to the penis (varicoceles). Some medications can also affect male fertility, such as niacin, steroids, and some medicines for ulcers, arthritis, and cancer.

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